JONATHAN THE HASMONEAN (also called Apphus; d. 143 B.C.E.), head of the Jewish state (160–143); youngest son of mattathias . Jonathan fought, together with his brother Judah Maccabee, in the first battles at the beginning of the Hasmonean revolt and took over the command after the latter's death. In the disastrous encounter at Elasa (160 B.C.E.) Jonathan assumed the command and took refuge with his followers in the wilderness of Tekoa. Here he was ineffectually attacked by bacchides , the Syrian commander, and succeeded in inflicting serious losses on the enemy. Bacchides thereupon returned to Judea. After the death of the high priest alcimus , Bacchides went back to Syria, but was persuaded by the Hellenists to return in the hope of attacking Jonathan by surprise. When the plan failed, Bacchides turned against those who had urged his return, while Jonathan seized the opportunity to proffer a peace pact. This was agreed upon and Jonathan returned the prisoners in his hands. From about 158–157 Jonathan resided at Michmash as the de facto leader of the Jewish people, without any official status. In the civil war between alexander balas and demetrius i for the Syrian throne Jonathan supported the latter, and after receiving various concessions removed his headquarters to Jerusalem (153). The hostages in the acra citadel were released and, to the dismay of the Hellenists, Jonathan was permitted to recruit an army. His first act was to fortify Jerusalem. Alexander Balas, equally anxious to secure Jonathan's support, offered him even more attractive terms than Demetrius, including appointment as high priest. Jonathan accepted, and took up his duties as high priest on the festival of Tabernacles in 153. He remained loyal to his patron   despite further extravagant offers from Demetrius. After Demetrius was killed in battle (150), Balas invited Jonathan to the celebration of his marriage to Cleopatra, daughter of Ptolemy Philometor. Jonathan was royally received and was appointed strategus and meridarch, thus acquiring both military and civil authority. During the ensuing struggle against Demetrius II for the Syrian throne, Jonathan remained loyal to Balas, who rewarded Jonathan with the city of Ekron and its environs for his defeat of the army of Appolonius in a campaign along the coast. After the death of both Balas and Ptolemy Philometor, Demetrius II emerged victorious from the struggle. When Jonathan sought to extend his authority in Judea by besieging the Acra citadel, the irate monarch summoned him to an audience at Acre. Although he did not raise the siege, Jonathan went laden with presents, and an agreement was reached whereby the Samaritan districts of Lydda, Aphaerema (Ephraim), and Ramathaim were added to Judea, the whole of which was exempted from taxes. Jonathan's status as high priest and leader was confirmed. In matters of domestic policy he took care not to appear as the sole ruler, and the "elders of the nation" are always mentioned as supplementing his authority. The internal struggle in Syria flared up again when tryphon sought to wrest the crown from Demetrius II. Jonathan at first gave his support to Demetrius, sending an army to help suppress the rebellion against him in Antioch, but he went over to Tryphon's camp when Demetrius reneged on his agreement to hand over the Acra citadel to him. Uneasy over his ally's strength, Tryphon persuaded him to disband most of his army, promising to award him Acre and other cities. When Jonathan arrived at Acre, Tryphon ordered him seized and his companions put to death. In addition, he took two of Jonathan's sons hostage and extorted large sums of money. In frustration at the failure of his assault upon Jerusalem, Tryphon put Jonathan to death. The fate of his sons is unknown. Jonathan was succeeded by his last surviving brother simeon . Josephus (Life, 4) claimed descent from a daughter of Jonathan. Notwithstanding his tragic end, Jonathan may be regarded as the true founder of the Hasmonean state. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: I Macc. 9:31–12:53; Jos., Ant., 13:1–212; V. Tcherikover, Hellenistic Civilisation and the Jews (1959), 231–4, 236–53; S. Zeitlin, The Rise and Fall of the Judean State (1962), index. (Lea Roth)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • SIMEON THE HASMONEAN — (called Thassis; d. 134 B.C.E.), the second son of mattathias . The origin of the name Thassis is obscure, and many conjectures have been put forward. Some think it is to be connected with the Hebrew toses (תּוֹסֵס, vigorous ) or tashush… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • JOHANAN THE HASMONEAN — (d. 161 B.C.E.), son of mattathias the Hasmonean and brother of Judah Maccabee, Jonathan, Simeon, and Eleazar. If their names in I Maccabees 2:2–5 are given in the order of their ages, he was the oldest son of Mattathias. His cognomen was Gaddi… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Simon the Hasmonean (Simeon ben Mattathias) — (fl. 2nd cent, BCE)    Palestinian ruler and high priest, second son of Mattathias the Hasmonean. In 142 BCE he succeeded his brother Jonathan as head of the Jewish state. He captured Gezer, secured the evacuation of Greek troops from the… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Jonathan Maccabaeus — was leader of the Hasmonean Dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE. He is called also Apphus (Ἀπφοῦς (Syriac, image )) = the dissembler or the diplomat , in allusion to a trait prominent in him; 1 Maccabees ii. 5).Leader of the JewsJonathan… …   Wikipedia

  • JONATHAN SON OF ABSALOM — JONATHAN SON OF ABSALOM, one of the army commanders of simeon the hasmonean . Jonathan was sent to Jaffa in 135 B.C.E. by Simeon, who feared that the local population might surrender to tryphon . Jonathan succeeded in holding the city after… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Jonathan — may refer to:* Jonathan (name), a first name * Jonathan (apple), a variety of appleIn people: * Jonathan (Samuel), son of King Saul of Israel and friend of David, in the Books of Samuel * Jonathan (Judges), figure in the Book of Judges * Jonathan …   Wikipedia

  • Hasmonean — Infobox Former Country native name = conventional long name = Hasmonean Kingdom common name = continent = Asia region = Levant country = era = Hellenistic Age status = Jewish theocracy government type = Jewish theocracy with priestly king year… …   Wikipedia

  • Hasmonean dynasty — Dynasty of ancient Judaea, descendants of the Maccabee family. The name derives from their ancestor Hasmoneus, but the first of the ruling dynasty was Simon Maccabeus, who became leader of the Maccabean revolt against the Seleucid king с 143 BC… …   Universalium

  • Jonathan —    1) (fl. 11th cent BCE)    Israelite prince, eldest son of Saul. He was a devoted friend of David. Together with Saul, he was killed in a battle against the Philistines on Mount Gilboa. The news of their deaths caused David to compose his… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • The Chanukah Song — is a humorous song written by comedian Adam Sandler with Saturday Night Live writers Lewis Morton and Ian Maxtone Graham and originally performed by Sandler on Saturday Night Live s Weekend Update on December 3, 1994.[1] Sandler subsequently… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.